How to Overhaul / Rebuild All 1999 - 2005 Toyota Corolla / Celica / Echo / MR2 1.8L 4 Cyl Engines: Part 1

How to Overhaul / Rebuild All 1999 - 2005 Toyota Corolla / Celica / Echo / MR2 1.8L 4 Cyl Engines.

Overhaul

Buy or Rebuild?

Now that you have determined that your engine is worn out, you must make some decisions. The question of whether or not an engine is worth rebuilding is largely a subjective matter and one of personal worth. Is the engine a popular one, or is it an obsolete model? Are parts available? Will it get acceptable gas mileage once it is rebuilt? Is the car it's being put into worth keeping? Would it be less expensive to buy a new engine, have your engine rebuilt by a pro, rebuild it yourself or buy a used engine from a salvage yard? Or would it be simpler and less expensive to buy another car? If you have considered all these matters and more, and have still decided to rebuild the engine, then it is time to decide how you will rebuild it.

The editors at Chilton feel that most engine machining should be performed by a professional machine shop. Don't think of it as wasting money, rather, as an assurance that the job has been done right the first time. There are many expensive and specialized tools required to perform such tasks as boring and honing an engine block or having a valve job done on a cylinder head. Even inspecting the parts requires expensive micrometers and gauges to properly measure wear and clearances. Also, a machine shop can deliver to you clean, and ready to assemble parts, saving you time and aggravation. Your maximum savings will come from performing the removal, disassembly, assembly and installation of the engine and purchasing or renting only the tools required to perform the above tasks. Depending on the particular circumstances, you may save 40 to 60 percent of the cost doing these yourself.

A complete rebuild or overhaul of an engine involves replacing all of the moving parts (pistons, rods, crankshaft, camshaft, etc.) with new ones and machining the non-moving wearing surfaces of the block and heads. Unfortunately, this may not be cost effective. For instance, your crankshaft may have been damaged or worn, but it can be machined undersize for a minimal fee.

So, as you can see, you can replace everything inside the engine, but, it is wiser to replace only those parts which are really needed, and, if possible, repair the more expensive ones. Later in this section, we will break the engine down into its two main components: the cylinder head and the engine block. We will discuss each component, and the recommended parts to replace during a rebuild on each.

Cylinder Block Reconditioning

A thorough overhaul or rebuild of an engine block would include replacing the pistons, rings, bearings, timing belt/chain assembly and oil pump. For OHV engines also include a new camshaft and lifters. The block would then have the cylinders bored and honed oversize (or if using removable cylinder sleeves, new sleeves installed) and the crankshaft would be cut undersize to provide new wearing surfaces and perfect clearances.

However, your particular engine may not have everything worn out. What if only the piston rings have worn out and the clearances on everything else are still within factory specifications- Well, you could just replace the rings and put it back together, but this would be a very rare example. Chances are, if one component in your engine is worn, other components are sure to follow, and soon. At the very least, you should always replace the rings, bearings and oil pump. This is what is commonly called a "freshen up".

 Assembly

Before you begin assembling the engine, first give yourself a clean, dirt free work area. Next, clean every engine component again. The key to a good assembly is cleanliness.

Mount the engine block into the engine stand and wash it one last time using water and detergent (dishwashing detergent works well). While washing it, scrub the cylinder bores with a soft bristle brush and thoroughly clean all of the oil passages. Completely dry the engine and spray the entire assembly down with an anti-rust solution such as WD-40® or similar product. Take a clean lint-free rag and wipe up any excess anti-rust solution from the bores, bearing saddles, etc. Repeat the final cleaning process on the crankshaft. Replace any freeze or oil galley plugs which were removed during disassembly.

Crankshaft

  • Remove the main bearing inserts from the block and bearing caps.
  • If the crankshaft main bearing journals have been refinished to a definite undersize, install the correct undersize bearing. Be sure that the bearing inserts and bearing bores are clean. Foreign material under inserts will distort bearing and cause failure.
  • Place the upper main bearing inserts in bores with tang in slot.

The oil holes in the bearing inserts must be aligned with the oil holes in the cylinder block.

  • Install the lower main bearing inserts in bearing caps.
  • Clean the mating surfaces of block and rear main bearing cap.
  • Carefully lower the crankshaft into place. Be careful NOT to damage bearing surfaces.
  • Check the clearance of each main bearing by using the following procedure:
  1. Place a piece of Plastigage® or its equivalent, on bearing surface across full width of bearing cap and about 1 / 4 in. off center.
  2. Install cap and tighten bolts to specifications. Do NOT turn crankshaft while Plastigage® is in place.
  3. Remove the cap. Using the supplied Plastigage® scale, check width of Plastigage® at widest point to get maximum clearance. Difference between readings is taper of journal.
  4. If clearance exceeds specified limits, try a 0.001 in. or 0.002 in. undersize bearing in combination with the standard bearing. Bearing clearance must be within specified limits. If standard and 0.002 in. undersize bearing does not bring clearance within desired limits, refinish crankshaft journal, then install undersize bearings.
  • After the bearings have been fitted, apply a light coat of engine oil to the journals and bearings. Install the rear main bearing cap. Install all bearing caps except the thrust bearing cap. Be sure that main bearing caps are installed in original locations. Tighten the bearing cap bolts to specifications.
  • Install the thrust bearing cap with bolts finger-tight.
  • Pry the crankshaft forward against the thrust surface of upper half of bearing.
  • Hold the crankshaft forward and pry the thrust bearing cap to the rear. This aligns the thrust surfaces of both halves of the bearing.
  • Retain the forward pressure on the crankshaft. Tighten the cap bolts to specifications.
  • Measure the crankshaft end-play as follows:
  • Mount a dial gauge to the engine block and position the tip of the gauge to read from the crankshaft end.
  • Carefully pry the crankshaft toward the rear of the engine and hold it there while you zero the gauge.
  • Carefully pry the crankshaft toward the front of the engine and read the gauge.
  • Confirm that the reading is within specifications. If not, install a new thrust bearing and repeat the procedure. If the reading is still out of specifications with a new bearing, have a machine shop inspect the thrust surfaces of the crankshaft, and if possible, repair it.
  • Rotate the crankshaft so as to position the first rod journal to the bottom of its stroke.
  • Install the rear main seal with retainer.

Cylinder Heads

  • Install the cylinder head(s) using new gaskets.
  • Install the timing sprockets/gears and the belt/chain assemblies.

Engine Covers & Components

  • Install the timing cover(s) and oil pan. Refer to your notes and drawings made prior to disassembly and install all of the components that were removed. Install the engine into the vehicle.

Pistons & Connecting Rods

  • Before installing the piston/connecting rod assembly, oil the pistons, piston rings and the cylinder walls with light engine oil. Install connecting rod bolt protectors or rubber hose onto the connecting rod bolts/studs. Also perform the following:
  1. Select the proper ring set for the size cylinder bore.
  2. Position the ring in the bore in which it is going to be used.
  3. Push the ring down into the bore area where normal ring wear is not encountered.
  4. Use the head of the piston to position the ring in the bore so that the ring is square with the cylinder wall. Use caution to avoid damage to the ring or cylinder bore.
  5. Measure the gap between the ends of the ring with a feeler gauge. Ring gap in a worn cylinder is normally greater than specification. If the ring gap is greater than the specified limits, try an oversize ring set.
  6. Check the ring side clearance of the compression rings with a feeler gauge inserted between the ring and its lower land according to specification. The gauge should slide freely around the entire ring circumference without binding. Any wear that occurs will form a step at the inner portion of the lower land. If the lower lands have high steps, the piston should be replaced.
  • Unless new pistons are installed, be sure to install the pistons in the cylinders from which they were removed. The numbers on the connecting rod and bearing cap must be on the same side when installed in the cylinder bore. If a connecting rod is ever transposed from one engine or cylinder to another, new bearings should be fitted and the connecting rod should be numbered to correspond with the new cylinder number. The notch on the piston head goes toward the front of the engine.
  • Install all of the rod bearing inserts into the rods and caps.
  • Install the rings to the pistons. Install the oil control ring first, then the second compression ring and finally the top compression ring. Use a piston ring expander tool to aid in installation and to help reduce the chance of breakage.
  • Make sure the ring gaps are properly spaced around the circumference of the piston. Fit a piston ring compressor around the piston and slide the piston and connecting rod assembly down into the cylinder bore, pushing it in with the wooden hammer handle. Push the piston down until it is only slightly below the top of the cylinder bore. Guide the connecting rod onto the crankshaft bearing journal carefully, to avoid damaging the crankshaft.
  • Check the bearing clearance of all the rod bearings, fitting them to the crankshaft bearing journals. Follow the procedure in the crankshaft installation above.
  • After the bearings have been fitted, apply a light coating of assembly oil to the journals and bearings.
  • Turn the crankshaft until the appropriate bearing journal is at the bottom of its stroke, then push the piston assembly all the way down until the connecting rod bearing seats on the crankshaft journal. Be careful NOT to allow the bearing cap screws to strike the crankshaft bearing journals and damage them.
  • After the piston and connecting rod assemblies have been installed, check the connecting rod side clearance on each crankshaft journal.
  • Prime and install the oil pump and the oil pump intake tube.

Cylinder Block Cleaning

Before the engine and its components are inspected, they must be thoroughly cleaned. You will need to remove any engine varnish, oil sludge and/or carbon deposits from all of the components to insure an accurate inspection. A crack in the engine block or cylinder head can easily become overlooked if hidden by a layer of sludge or carbon.

Most of the cleaning process can be carried out with common hand tools and readily available solvents or solutions. Carbon deposits can be chipped away using a hammer and a hard wooden chisel. Old gasket material and varnish or sludge can usually be removed using a scraper and/or cleaning solvent. Extremely stubborn deposits may require the use of a power drill with a wire brush. If using a wire brush, use extreme care around any critical machined surfaces (such as the gasket surfaces, bearing saddles, cylinder bores, etc.). Use of a wire brush is NOT RECOMMENDED on any aluminum components. Always follow any safety recommendations given by the manufacturer of the tool and/or solvent. You should always wear eye protection during any cleaning process involving scraping, chipping or spraying of solvents.

An alternative to the mess and hassle of cleaning the parts yourself is to drop them off at a local garage or machine shop. They will, more than likely, have the necessary equipment to properly clean all of the parts for a nominal fee.

CAUTION: Always wear eye protection during any cleaning process involving scraping, chipping or spraying of solvents.

Remove any oil galley plugs, freeze plugs and/or pressed-in bearings and carefully wash and degrease all of the engine components including the fasteners and bolts. Small parts such as the valves, springs, etc., should be placed in a metal basket and allowed to soak. Use pipe cleaner type brushes, and clean all passageways in the components. Use a ring expander and remove the rings from the pistons. Clean the piston ring grooves with a special tool or a piece of broken ring. Scrape the carbon off of the top of the piston. You should NEVER use a wire brush on the pistons. After preparing all of the piston assemblies in this manner, wash and degrease them again.

WARNING: Use extreme care when cleaning around the cylinder head valve seats. A mistake or slip may cost you a new seat.

When cleaning the cylinder head, remove carbon from the combustion chamber with the valves installed. This will avoid damaging the valve seats.

Disassembly

The engine disassembly instructions following assume that you have the engine mounted on an engine stand. If not, it is easiest to disassemble the engine on a bench or the floor with it resting on the bellhousing or transmission mounting surface. You must be able to access the connecting rod fasteners and turn the crankshaft during disassembly. Also, all engine covers (timing, front, side, oil pan, whatever) should have already been removed. Engines which are seized or locked up may not be able to be completely disassembled, and a core (salvage yard) engine should be purchased.

  • If not done during the cylinder head removal, remove the timing chain/belt and/or gear/sprocket assembly. Remove the oil pick-up and pump assembly and, if necessary, the pump drive.
  • If equipped, remove any balance or auxiliary shafts. If necessary, remove the cylinder ridge from the top of the bore. See the cylinder ridge removal procedure earlier in this section.
  • Rotate the engine over so that the crankshaft is exposed. Use a number punch or scribe and mark each connecting rod with its respective cylinder number.The cylinder closest to the front of the engine is always number 1. However, depending on the engine placement, the front of the engine could either be the flywheel or damper/pulley end. Generally the front of the engine faces the front of the vehicle.
  • Use a number punch or scribe and also mark the main bearing caps from front to rear with the front most cap being number 1 (if there are five caps, mark them 1 through 5, front to rear).

WARNING: Take special care when pushing the connecting rod up from the crankshaft because the sharp threads of the rod bolts/studs will score the crankshaft journal. Insure that special plastic caps are installed over them, or cut two pieces of rubber hose to do the same.

  • Again, rotate the engine, this time to position the number one cylinder bore (head surface) up.
  • Turn the crankshaft until the number one piston is at the bottom of its travel, this should allow the maximum access to its connecting rod.
  • Remove the No. 1 connecting rods fasteners and cap and place two lengths of rubber hose over the rod bolts/studs to protect the crankshaft from damage.
  • Using a sturdy wooden dowel and a hammer, push the connecting rod up about 1 in. (25mm) from the crankshaft and remove the upper bearing insert. Continue pushing or tapping the connecting rod up until the piston rings are out of the cylinder bore.
  • Remove the piston and rod by hand, put the upper half of the bearing insert back into the rod.
  • Install the cap with its bearing insert installed, and hand-tighten the cap fasteners. If the parts are kept in order in this manner, they will NOT get lost and you will be able to tell which bearings came form what cylinder if any problems are discovered and diagnosis is necessary.
  • Remove all the other piston assemblies in the same manner. On V-style engines, remove all of the pistons from one bank, then reposition the engine with the other cylinder bank head surface up, and remove that banks piston assemblies.
  • The only remaining component in the engine block should now be the crankshaft. Loosen the main bearing caps evenly until the fasteners can be turned by hand, then remove them and the caps.
  • Remove the crankshaft from the engine block. Thoroughly clean all of the components.

Inspection

  • Now that the engine block and all of its components are clean, it's time to inspect them for wear and/or damage. To accurately inspect them, you will need some specialized tools:
  1. Two or three separate micrometers to measure the pistons and crankshaft journals
  2. A dial indicator
  3. Telescoping gauges for the cylinder bores
  4. A rod alignment fixture to check for bent connecting rods

If you do not have access to the proper tools, you may want to bring the components to a shop that does.

Generally, you shouldn't expect cracks in the engine block or its components unless it was known to leak, consume or mix engine fluids, it was severely overheated, or there was evidence of bad bearings and/or crankshaft damage. A visual inspection should be performed on all of the components, but just because you don't see a crack does not mean it is not there. Some more reliable methods for inspecting for cracks include Magnaflux®, a magnetic process or Zyglo®, a dye penetrant. Magnaflux® is used only on ferrous metal (cast iron). Zyglo® uses a spray on fluorescent mixture along with a black light to reveal the cracks. It is strongly recommended to have your engine block checked professionally for cracks, especially if the engine was known to have overheated and/or leaked or consumed coolant. Contact a local shop for availability and pricing of these services.

Bearings

All of the engine bearings should be visually inspected for wear and/or damage. The bearing should look evenly worn all around with no deep scores or pits. If the bearing is severely worn, scored, pitted or heat blued, then the bearing, and the components that use it, should be brought to a machine shop for inspection. Full-circle bearings (used on most camshafts, auxiliary shafts, balance shafts, etc.) require specialized tools for removal and installation, and should be brought to a machine shop for service.

Engine Block

Checking the Block Deck for Warpage

The top of the engine block where the cylinder head mounts is called the deck. Insure that the deck surface is clean of dirt, carbon deposits and old gasket material. Place a straightedge across the surface of the deck along its centerline and, using feeler gauges, check the clearance along several points. Repeat the checking procedure with the straightedge placed along both diagonals of the deck surface. If the reading exceeds 0.003 in. (0.076mm) within a 6.0 in. (15.2cm) span, or 0.006 in. (0.152mm) over the total length of the deck, it must be machined.

Cylinder Bores

The cylinder bores house the pistons and are slightly larger than the pistons themselves. A common piston-to-bore clearance is 0.0015-0.0025 in. (0.0381mm-0.0635mm). Inspect and measure the cylinder bores. The bore should be checked for out-of-roundness, taper and size. The results of this inspection will determine whether the cylinder can be used in its existing size and condition, or rebore to the next oversize is required (or in the case of removable sleeves, have replacements installed).

The amount of cylinder wall wear is always greater at the top of the cylinder than at the bottom. This wear is known as taper. Any cylinder that has a taper of 0.0012 in. (0.305mm) or more, must be rebored. Measurements are taken at a number of positions in each cylinder: at the top, middle and bottom and at two points at each position; that is, at a point 90 degrees from the crankshaft centerline, as well as a point parallel to the crankshaft centerline. The measurements are made with either a special dial indicator or a telescopic gauge and micrometer. If the necessary precision tools to check the bore are not available, take the block to a machine shop and have them mike it. Also if you don't have the tools to check the cylinder bores, chances are you will not have the necessary devices to check the pistons, connecting rods and crankshaft. Take these components with you and save yourself an extra trip.

For our procedures, we will use a telescopic gauge and a micrometer. You will need one of each, with a measuring range which covers your cylinder bore size.

  • Position the telescopic gauge in the cylinder bore, loosen the gauges lock and allow it to expand.

Your first two readings will be at the top of the cylinder bore, then proceed to the middle and finally the bottom, making a total of six measurements.

  • Hold the gauge square in the bore, 90 degrees from the crankshaft centerline, and gently tighten the lock. Tilt the gauge back to remove it from the bore.
  • Measure the gauge with the micrometer and record the reading.
  • Again, hold the gauge square in the bore, this time parallel to the crankshaft centerline, and gently tighten the lock. Again, you will tilt the gauge back to remove it from the bore.
  • Measure the gauge with the micrometer and record this reading. The difference between these two readings is the out-of-round measurement of the cylinder.
  • Repeat steps 1 through 5, each time going to the next lower position, until you reach the bottom of the cylinder. Then go to the next cylinder, and continue until all of the cylinders have been measured.

The difference between these measurements will tell you all about the wear in your cylinders. The measurements which were taken 90 degrees from the crankshaft centerline will always reflect the most wear. That is because at this position is where the engine power presses the piston against the cylinder bore the hardest. This is known as thrust wear. Take your top, 90 degree measurement and compare it to your bottom, 90 degree measurement. The difference between them is the taper. When you measure your pistons, you will compare these readings to your piston sizes and determine piston-to-wall clearance.

Engine Block Bearing Alignment

Remove the main bearing caps and, if still installed, the main bearing inserts. Inspect all of the main bearing saddles and caps for damage, burrs or high spots. If damage is found, and it is caused from a spun main bearing, the block will need to be align-bored or, if severe enough, replacement. Any burrs or high spots should be carefully removed with a metal file.

Place a straightedge on the bearing saddles, in the engine block, along the centerline of the crankshaft. If any clearance exists between the straightedge and the saddles, the block must be align-bored.

Align-boring consists of machining the main bearing saddles and caps by means of a flycutter that runs through the bearing saddles.

Refinishing

Almost all engine block refinishing must be performed by a machine shop. If the cylinders are NOT to be rebored, then the cylinder glaze can be removed with a ball hone. When removing cylinder glaze with a ball hone, use a light or penetrating type oil to lubricate the hone. Do NOT allow the hone to run dry as this may cause excessive scoring of the cylinder bores and wear on the hone. If new pistons are required, they will need to be installed to the connecting rods. This should be performed by a machine shop as the pistons must be installed in the correct relationship to the rod or engine damage can occur.

Ridge Removal

Because the top piston ring does not travel to the very top of the cylinder, a ridge is built up between the end of the travel and the top of the cylinder bore.

Pushing the piston and connecting rod assembly past the ridge can be difficult, and damage to the piston ring lands could occur. If the ridge is not removed before installing a new piston or not removed at all, piston ring breakage and piston damage may occur.

It is always recommended that you remove any cylinder ridges before removing the piston and connecting rod assemblies. If you know that new pistons are going to be installed and the engine block will be bored oversize, you may be able to forego this step. However, some ridges may actually prevent the assemblies from being removed, necessitating its removal.

There are several different types of ridge reamers on the market, none of which are inexpensive. Unless a great deal of engine rebuilding is anticipated, borrow or rent a reamer.

  • Turn the crankshaft until the piston is at the bottom of its travel.
  • Cover the head of the piston with a rag.
  • Follow the tool manufacturer's instructions and cut away the ridge, exercising extreme care to avoid cutting too deeply.
  • Remove the ridge reamer, the rag and as many of the cuttings as possible. Continue until all of the cylinder ridges have been removed.

Determining Engine Condition

Anything that generates heat and/or friction will eventually burn or wear out (ie. a light bulb generates heat, therefore its life span is limited). With this in mind, a running engine generates tremendous amounts of both; friction is encountered by the moving and rotating parts inside the engine and heat is created by friction and combustion of the fuel. However, the engine has systems designed to help reduce the effects of heat and friction and provide added longevity. The oiling system reduces the amount of friction encountered by the moving parts inside the engine, while the cooling system reduces heat created by friction and combustion. If either system is not maintained, a break-down will be inevitable. Therefore, you can see how regular maintenance can affect the service life of your vehicle. If you do not drain, flush and refill your cooling system at the proper intervals, deposits will begin to accumulate in the radiator, thereby reducing the amount of heat it can extract from the coolant. The same applies to your oil and filter; if it is not changed often enough it becomes laden with contaminates and is unable to properly lubricate the engine. This increases friction and wear.

There are a number of methods for evaluating the condition of your engine. A compression test can reveal the condition of your pistons, piston rings, cylinder bores, head gasket(s), valves and valve seats. An oil pressure test can warn you of possible engine bearing, or oil pump failures. Excessive oil consumption, evidence of oil in the engine air intake area and/or bluish smoke from the tail pipe may indicate worn piston rings, worn valve guides and/or valve seals. As a general rule, an engine that uses no more than one quart of oil every 1000 miles is in good condition. Engines that use one quart of oil or more in less than 1000 miles should first be checked for oil leaks. If any oil leaks are present, have them fixed before determining how much oil is consumed by the engine, especially if blue smoke is not visible at the tail pipe.

Compression Test

A noticeable lack of engine power, excessive oil consumption and/or poor fuel mileage measured over an extended period are all indicators of internal engine wear. Worn piston rings, scored or worn cylinder bores, blown head gaskets, sticking or burnt valves, and worn valve seats are all possible culprits. A check of each cylinder's compression will help locate the problem.

A screw-in type compression gauge is more accurate than the type you simply hold against the spark plug hole.

Although it takes slightly longer to use, it's worth the effort to obtain a more accurate reading.

  • Make sure that the proper amount and viscosity of engine oil is in the crankcase, then ensure the battery is fully charged.
  • Warm-up the engine to normal operating temperature, then shut the engine OFF .
  • Disable the ignition system.
  • Label and disconnect all of the spark plug wires from the plugs.
  • Thoroughly clean the cylinder head area around the spark plug ports, then remove the spark plugs.
  • Set the throttle plate to the fully open (wide-open throttle) position. You can block the accelerator linkage open for this, or you can have an assistant fully depress the accelerator pedal.
  • Install a screw-in type compression gauge into the No. 1 spark plug hole until the fitting is snug.

WARNING: Be careful NOT to cross thread the spark plug hole.

  • According to the tool manufacturer's instructions, connect a remote starting switch to the starting circuit.
  • With the ignition switch in the OFF position, use the remote starting switch to crank the engine through at least five compression strokes (approximately 5 seconds of cranking) and record the highest reading on the gauge.
  • Repeat the test on each cylinder, cranking the engine approximately the same number of compression strokes and/or time as the first.
  • Compare the highest readings from each cylinder to that of the others. The indicated compression pressures are considered within specifications if the lowest reading cylinder is within 75 percent of the pressure recorded for the highest reading cylinder. For example, if your highest reading cylinder pressure was 150 psi (1034 kPa), then 75 percent of that would be 113 psi (779 kPa). So the lowest reading cylinder should be no less than 113 psi (779 kPa).
  • If a cylinder exhibits an unusually low compression reading, pour a tablespoon of clean engine oil into the cylinder through the spark plug hole and repeat the compression test. If the compression rises after adding oil, it means that the cylinder's piston rings and/or cylinder bore are damaged or worn. If the pressure remains low, the valves may not be seating properly (a valve job is needed), or the head gasket may be blown near that cylinder. If compression in any two adjacent cylinders is low, and if the addition of oil doesn't help raise compression, there is leakage past the head gasket. Oil and coolant in the combustion chamber, combined with blue or constant white smoke from the tail pipe, are symptoms of this problem. However, don't be alarmed by the normal white smoke emitted from the tail pipe during engine warm-up or from cold weather driving. There may be evidence of water droplets on the engine dipstick and/or oil droplets in the cooling system if a head gasket is blown.

Oil Pressure Test

Check for proper oil pressure at the sending unit passage with an externally mounted mechanical oil pressure gauge (as opposed to relying on a factory installed dash-mounted gauge). A tachometer may also be needed, as some specifications may require running the engine at a specific rpm.

  • With the engine cold, locate and remove the oil pressure sending unit.
  • Following the manufacturer's instructions, connect a mechanical oil pressure gauge and, if necessary, a tachometer to the engine.
  • Start the engine and allow it to idle.
  • Check the oil pressure reading when cold and record the number. You may need to run the engine at a specified rpm, so check the specifications chart located earlier in this section.
  • Run the engine until normal operating temperature is reached (upper radiator hose will feel warm).
  • Check the oil pressure reading again with the engine hot and record the number. Turn the engine OFF .
  • Compare your hot oil pressure reading to that given in the chart. If the reading is low, check the cold pressure reading against the chart. If the cold pressure is well above the specification, and the hot reading was lower than the specification, you may have the wrong viscosity oil in the engine. Change the oil, making sure to use the proper grade and quantity, then repeat the test.

Low oil pressure readings could be attributed to internal component wear, pump related problems, a low oil level, or oil viscosity that is too low. High oil pressure readings could be caused by an overfilled crankcase, too high of an oil viscosity or a faulty pressure relief valve.

Engine Overhaul Tips

Most engine overhaul procedures are fairly standard. In addition to specific parts replacement procedures and specifications for your individual engine, this section is also a guide to acceptable rebuilding procedures. Examples of standard rebuilding practice are given and should be used along with specific details concerning your particular engine.

Competent and accurate machine shop services will ensure maximum performance, reliability and engine life. In most instances it is more profitable for the do-it-yourself mechanic to remove, clean and inspect the component, buy the necessary parts and deliver these to a shop for actual machine work.

Much of the assembly work (crankshaft, bearings, piston rods, and other components) is well within the scope of the do-it-yourself mechanic's tools and abilities. You will have to decide for yourself the depth of involvement you desire in an engine repair or rebuild.

Aluminum has become extremely popular for use in engines, due to its low weight. Observe the following precautions when handling aluminum parts:

  • NEVER hot tank aluminum parts (the caustic hot tank solution will eat the aluminum.
  • Remove all aluminum parts (identification tag, etc.) from engine parts prior to the tanking.
  • Always coat threads lightly with engine oil or anti-seize compounds before installation, to prevent seizure.
  • NEVER over-tighten bolts or spark plugs especially in aluminum threads.

When assembling the engine, any parts that will be exposed to frictional contact must be pre-lubed to provide lubrication at initial start-up. Any product specifically formulated for this purpose can be used, but engine oil is NOT recommended as a pre-lube in most cases.

When semi-permanent (locked, but removable) installation of bolts or nuts is desired, threads should be cleaned and coated with Loctite® or another similar, commercial non-hardening sealant.

Repairing Damaged Threads

Several methods of repairing damaged threads are available. Heli-Coil® (shown here), Keenserts® and Microdot® are among the most widely used. All involve basically the same principle-drilling out stripped threads, tapping the hole and installing a pre-wound insert-making welding, plugging and oversize fasteners unnecessary.

Two types of thread repair inserts are usually supplied: a standard type for most inch coarse, inch fine, metric course and metric fine thread sizes and a spark lug type to fit most spark plug port sizes. Consult the individual tool manufacturer's catalog to determine exact applications. Typical thread repair kits will contain a selection of prewound threaded inserts, a tap (corresponding to the outside diameter threads of the insert) and an installation tool. Spark plug inserts usually differ because they require a tap equipped with pilot threads and a combined reamer/tap section. Most manufacturers also supply blister-packed thread repair inserts separately in addition to a master kit containing a variety of taps and inserts plus installation tools.

Before attempting to repair a threaded hole, remove any snapped, broken or damaged bolts or studs. Penetrating oil can be used to free frozen threads. The offending item can usually be removed with locking pliers or using a screw/stud extractor. After the hole is clear, the thread can be repaired, as shown in the series of accompanying illustrations and in the kit manufacturer's instructions.

Tools

The tools required for an engine overhaul or parts replacement will depend on the depth of your involvement. With a few exceptions, they will be the tools found in a mechanic's tool kit (See Section 1 of this manual). More in-depth work will require some or all of the following:

The use of most of these tools is illustrated in this section. Many can be rented for a one-time use from a local parts jobber or tool supply house specializing in automotive work.

Occasionally, the use of special tools is called for.

Engine Preparation

To properly rebuild an engine, you must first remove it from the vehicle, then disassemble and diagnose it. Ideally you should place your engine on an engine stand. This affords you the best access to the engine components. Follow the manufacturer's directions for using the stand with your particular engine. Remove the flywheel or flexplate before installing the engine to the stand.

Now that you have the engine on a stand, and assuming that you have drained the oil and coolant from the engine, it's time to strip it of all but the necessary components. Before you start disassembling the engine, you may want to take a moment to draw some pictures, or fabricate some labels or containers to mark the locations of various components and the bolts and/or studs which fasten them. Modern day engines use a lot of little brackets and clips which hold wiring harnesses and such, and these holders are often mounted on studs and/or bolts that can be easily mixed up.

The manufacturer spent a lot of time and money designing your vehicle, and they wouldn't have wasted any of it by haphazardly placing brackets, clips or fasteners on the vehicle. If it's present when you disassemble it, put it back when you assemble, you will regret not remembering that little bracket which holds a wire harness out of the path of a rotating part.

You should begin by unbolting any accessories still attached to the engine, such as the water pump, power steering pump, alternator, etc. Then, unfasten any manifolds (intake or exhaust) which were not removed during the engine removal procedure. Finally, remove any covers remaining on the engine such as the rocker arm, front or timing cover and oil pan. Some front covers may require the vibration damper and/or crank pulley to be removed beforehand. The idea is to reduce the engine to the bare necessities (cylinder head(s), valve train, engine block, crankshaft, pistons and connecting rods), plus any other 'in block' components such as oil pumps, balance shafts and auxiliary shafts.

Finally, remove the cylinder head(s) from the engine block and carefully place on a bench. Disassembly instructions for each component follow later in this section.

Engine Start-Up And Break-In

Breaking It In

Make the first miles on the new engine, easy ones. Vary the speed but do not accelerate hard. Most importantly, do not lug the engine, and avoid sustained high speeds until at least 100 miles. Check the engine oil and coolant levels frequently. Expect the engine to use a little oil until the rings seat. Change the oil and filter at 500 miles, 1500 miles, then every 3000 miles past that.

Starting the Engine

Now that the engine is installed and every wire and hose is properly connected, go back and double check that all coolant and vacuum hoses are connected. Check that you oil drain plug is installed and properly tightened. If not already done, install a new oil filter onto the engine. Fill the crankcase with the proper amount and grade of engine oil. Fill the cooling system with a 50/50 mixture of coolant/water.

  • Connect the vehicle battery.
  • Start the engine. Keep your eye on your oil pressure indicator; if it does not indicate oil pressure within 10 seconds of starting, turn the vehicle off.

WARNING: Damage to the engine can result if it is allowed to run with no oil pressure. Check the engine oil level to make sure that it is full. Check for any leaks and if found, repair the leaks before continuing. If there is still no indication of oil pressure, you may need to prime the system.

  • Confirm that there are no fluid leaks (oil or other).
  • Allow the engine to reach normal operating temperature (the upper radiator hose will be hot to the touch).
  • If necessary, set the ignition timing.
  • Install any remaining components such as the air cleaner (if removed for ignition timing) or body panels which were removed.

Keeping It Maintained

Now that you have just gone through all of that hard work, keep yourself from doing it all over again by thoroughly maintaining it. Not that you may not have maintained it before, heck you could have had one to two hundred thousand miles on it before doing this. However, you may have bought the vehicle used, and the previous owner did not keep up on maintenance.

Precautions

CAUTION: To avoid personal injury, avoid prolonged and repeated skin contact with used engine oil. Always follow these simple precautions when handling used motor oil:

  • Avoid prolonged skin contact with used motor oil.
  • Remove oil from skin by washing thoroughly with soap and water or waterless hand cleaner.
  • Do NOT use gasoline, thinners or other solvents.
  • Avoid prolonged skin contact with oil-soaked clothing.

Next: How to Replace the Engine on All 1999 - 2005 Toyota Corolla / Celica / Echo / MR2 1.8L 4 Cyl Models: Part 2

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How Long Does It Take to Replace a Clutch

How long does it take to replace a clutch? Everything you need to know about replacing a clutch.

When comes to replacing your automobiles clutch, there are several factors that effect how much time the project may take to complete. In order to help you gauge how much time will be needed, whether you are doing it yourself, or hiring a mechanic, let's go over the main points of focus that factor in on clutch replacement.

First, I'm going to give you the crash course on clutches, so that you have a basic understanding of what your clutch is and how it helps your automobile function.

Your vehicles clutch works to help your transmission shift gears and keep the vehicle moving. The clutch also allows your engine to continue spinning freely, even when your vehicle is stopped. Without the clutch, your car would be in constant motion while the engine is on, which would make driving very difficult. Likewise, in a vehicle that has a clutch in need of replacement, your vehicle won't move at all, as most clutches do not break while in gear. No motion from the vehicle while the engine revs up is usually sign number one that your clutch needs to be replaced.

Your clutch works by using a series of gears, bands, plates, springs and bearings. When a clutch is in need of replacement, it can be any number of these vital parts that needs to be replaced. A seasoned mechanic can often inform you of whether or not your entire clutch needs to be replaced, or just certain components, though they will often have to remove the clutch in order to give you a definitive answer.

So, now that you know a little bit about your automobiles clutch, let's look at some of the factors that can increase or decrease the time it will take to replace your clutch.

1. Transmission Type: Manual or Automatic?

Manual transmissions tend to have clutches with more parts, but they are often less complicated and less expensive to replace then clutches in vehicles with an Automatic transmission. Automatic transmission vehicles do not usually have clutch kits available through part shops, which can also make the project more daunting.

Let's say your transmission has already been removed from the vehicle. It would take 2-4 hours for an experienced mechanic to replace the clutch in this situation, so long as no other complications arose.

2. FWD Vs. RWD

Front Wheel Drive (FWD) vehicles are well known for being much more menacing then Rear Wheel Drive (RWD) vehicles. With a FWD vehicle, your engine and transmission are often mated and seated in your engine compartment as a unit. In order to change the clutch, you often have to remove the entire unit, un-mate the engine and transmission, remove and replace the clutch, and then re-mate the engine and transmission before putting the unit back in the vehicle. In order to do this, you will also have to disassemble the wheel spindles, CV shafts, the radiator, hoses, electric, air system and many other components along the way. Then you'll have to replace everything afterward. Besides the obvious intense labor involved in this, you can run into such complications and not properly aligning the drive shaft or bending the drive shaft while putting the unit back into the engine compartment. Both complications can require you to do the job all over again, and are not the worst complications that can arise.

In RWD vehicles, the job is much less intimidating. You'll still be required to un-mate the transmission from the engine in order to replace the clutch. Though as the transmission will be a separate unit from the engine, you can leave the engine in the vehicle, avoid disconnecting most of the front end of the vehicle and just pull the transmission away from the vehicle. Then you replace the clutch, re-mate the transmission to the engine and your done. The complications of clutch replacement in a RWD vehicle are few and far between when compared to a FWD, even for a novice.

If your vehicle has is FWD, you can add an extra 4 to 8 hours to your project timeline. If your vehicle is a RWD, you can add between 2 and 4 hours to the job, which mostly depend on your experience.

3. Clutch Kit or Singular Components?

To tell you the truth, getting a clutch kit and replacing every component in your clutch system is much easier, cost effective and efficient then trying to replace single components. Part of the reason for this, is that it can be difficult to pinpoint one particular component of the clutch that needs to be replaced. Unless of course, you've been repairing clutches for 40 years. Another good reason to replace the whole clutch, is that even if you can pinpoint one particular part that is causing your clutch malfunction, the odds are that if you don't replace the rest of the clutch at that time, you will soon need to go back in and change more parts later. So it's good to ask yourself, how often do you want to go through the process to get to your clutch? It's also less time consuming to replace the whole clutch, then to try and find specific parts that are worn.

If you are replacing the entire clutch with a kit, you can add 1 hour to your project. If you are attempting to pinpoint and replace only certain components, you can add 2 to 4 hours to your project.

4. Drive Train Mileage: High or Low?

Mileage makes a difference. If your vehicle is brand new and has less then 50,000 miles on it, then most of your parts, including the clutch are probably still in great condition. This is especially important when it comes to the process of getting to your clutch. If your vehicle is high mileage, then most of the parts are probably worn, rusty, oil covered and have a higher potential for breaking as the project continues.

There is no definitive timeline for this project if your vehicle has higher or lower mileage, though if you have bolts, parts and other components breaking or stripping along the way, then you can add anywhere from 1 to 5 hours to the job. It really depends on the condition of your vehicle and how much more you'll have to replace. I've had some vehicles where all of the transmission bolts were worn and broke, the housing was cracked, linkages needed new springs, other bolts were stripped (requiring special tools to remove), gaskets were old and tore on the way out, and the engine and transmission were covered in built up grease and oil. All of these things complicate the process.

5. The Proper Tools

I have known very crafty mechanics who can complete this entire project using two screw drivers, a few select sockets, a pair of pliers and some wrenches. While this is one way to do it, this is certainly not ideal, especially if you do not have a lot of experience replacing clutches. Most experienced mechanics will not even attempt to replace a clutch without all the proper tools for the job. The obvious reason is that it takes less time and you bleed a lot less during the process.

If you have all the proper tools for the job, you can shave off an hour or two from your project time. If your tool selection is limited, you can add 2 to 5 hours to your timeline.

6. DIY Vs. Mechanic: Experience Makes a Difference

I have always applauded those who choose to do their own vehicular repairs. Not only do you learn something along the way, but you can take the responsibility for any thing that goes wrong, and you'll have direct awareness of your process, making it easier to understand what when wrong. Even with that in mind, DIY can add lots of time to your project. Whereas an experienced mechanic who has replaced dozens of clutches already, can easily complete the job in timely manner.

If you are DIY and you have little to no experience in the project, you can add 2 to 5 days or more to your project. If you are hiring a skilled mechanic to do the job, depending on their experience, it can take 5 to 12 hours to complete the job.

7. Specialty Vehicles

Specialty vehicles can also make or break your clutch repair time. Some high end vehicles include components such as valves, extra gears or dual clutches. Other high end vehicles might require special tools that would otherwise be unnecessary on most other vehicles. Mercedes, BMW's and Ferrari's are famous for this type of thing.

If your vehicle is high end, you can add a few extra hours plus extra $$$ to your project.

To summarize: In the perfect situation, your clutch replacement could take from 4 to 8 hours to complete.

Though since most vehicles in need of clutch replacement are not in perfect shape, it can often take between 5 and 10 hours to complete the project, adding more time for less experience on the mechanics part.

How To Use A Battery Load Tester

A battery load tester does more than just check the condition of the cars battery, it can be used to check the starting system, the charging system, and the alternator too.

Battery load testers were once too expensive for the do-it-yourself mechanic. Today, a battery load tester is affordable enough for even the casual shade tree mechanic to have in his garage. My favorite is a handheld digital battery loads tester made by KAL Industries, the KAL model 4780, 130 it loads Amp Digital Battery Load Tester that costs less than $50 online.

You can use a Digital Multimeter to check Automobile storage batteries, charging systems, and starting systems, but it is not the right tool for the job. Every serious shade tree mechanic needs to have a stand alone battery load tester on his or her tool kit.

General Guidelines for Using Any Battery Load Tester To Test A Battery

  1. Make sure that the ignition switch is in the "OFF" position and that all-electrical load has been removed from the battery. If there are electrical loads on the battery, you will have to disconnect the battery's negative ground cable. CAUTION: Do not disconnect a battery without first plugging a battery keeper in to the cigarette lighter socket to hold the computer codes.
  2. Do not attempt to load test a battery while the battery is connected up to a battery charger.
  3. Make sure that the battery posts and terminals are clean and free of corrosion before connecting the load tester. Any corrosion present will cause a high resistant connection and produce a false reading.
  4. If you are working with a battery that has side terminals, you need to screw in "Charging Posts" in order to connect the load tester.
  5. All load testers become hot during use so allow them to cool down for 2 to 3 minutes between tests. Never hold the load test button down for more than 10 to 15 seconds. Holding the load test button down for a longer period will cause irreparable harm to the load tester.

Voltage Correction For Temperature

When testing a battery where the ambient temperature is between 40°F and 70°F add 0.1 volt for every 10°F below 70F. When testing a battery where the ambient temperature is between 70°F and 100°F, subtract 0.1 volts for every 10°F above 70°F.

Conducting A Battery Load Test

  1. Connect the Red "+" cable to the Positive "+" battery post and the Black "-" cable to the negative "-" battery post. The LCD readout will display the battery voltage. The battery must be at a 75 percent charge before a load test can be conducted. At 70°F, a 75 percent charge is equal to at least 12.45 volts for a 12-volt battery and 6.23 volts for a 6-volt battery. If the temperature is above or below 70°F, adjust the voltage as explained in the above section on voltage –Vs- temperature correction.
  2. If the state of charge is below 75%, recharge the battery before continuing with the load test. If you have not read my article on How To Use A Battery Charger, you should read it now.
  3. Once the battery is at 75% charge or above, reconnect the load tester to the battery, and hold the "Load Switch" down for 10 seconds. Note the voltage reading on the LCD and release the "Load Switch."
  4. Disconnect the Red lead then the Black lead.

Pixabay

Interpreting The Test Results

  1. A battery in good condition should read between 10.00 and 12.00 volts.
  2. A weak battery will read between 6.10 and 10.00 volts. If the test indicates a weak battery, recharge the battery and conduct the test again. If the results are the same, there are one or more bad cells in the battery and the battery needs to be replaced. If the battery checks good the second time, the battery was not adequately charged before the first test.
  3. A bad battery reads below 6.10 volts. The battery may have been totally discharged before the first test but odds are that the battery is bad and you should replace it.

Using The Load Tester To Test The Starting System

  1. Connect the load tester to the battery as before but do not depress the "Load Test" switch.
  2. Disable the ignition system so the car does not start.
  3. Use a remote start button or have a helper crank the engine for 15 seconds.
  4. Note the voltage readout on the tester's LCD. Assuming a fully charged battery, the voltage should not drop below 9.0 volts. If the voltage drops below 9.0 volts during the test there are electrical or mechanical problems with the starter system
  5. Recharge the battery and repeat the test to confirm the original results.

Conducting A Charging Test

  1. Start the engine and allow the engine to reach operating temperature.
  2. Turn the ignition switch to "OFF" to stop the engine.
  3. Turn the ignition switch to "Accessory" position. Turn the headlights on and the fan on to the high position for one minute. You need to start with a partially discharged batter for this test.
  4. Turn the ignition switch to "OFF" and connect the load tester to the battery.
  5. Start the engine and run at a fast idle (1200 to 1500 RPM.) A charging system in good working order will maintain a voltage between 13.5 and 15.5 volts for a 12-volt system and between 6.7 and 7.4 volts for a 6-volt system. F the voltages are above or below those readings, there is a problem with the charging system.

Conducting An Alternator Test

  1. Connect the red and black battery clamps as before. Plug the small test lead into the jack on the tester and attach the alligator clip to the positive terminal on the alternator. In the case of GM alternators, attach the lead to the N1 terminal without disconnecting the plug.
  2. Start the engine and allow to idle.
  3. If you are testing a Gm alternator, watch the red LED and do not touch the load switch. If the red LED flashes and then goes out or if it never comes on, the diodes are good. If the red LED comes on and stays on the diodes could be bad and the alternator need to be replaced.
  4. If you are not testing a GM alternator, Rev the engine to 1200 to 1500 RPMs.
  5. Press and hold the "Load witch" for 5 seconds. If the red LED flashes and then goes out or never comes on the diodes are good. If the red LED continues to flash or remains on, the alternator or its integral regulator are bad.

Most battery load testers come with detailed instructions on how to conduct all these tests.

How to Replace the Water Pump on All 1996 - 2000 Honda Civic LX / Del Sol 1.6L 4 Cyl Engines

In this repair guide, you will be taken step-by-step through the process of removing and installing a water pump on all 1996 - 2000 Honda Civic LX and Honda Civic del Sol 1.6L 4 cyl engines.

The original radio contains a coded anti-theft circuit. Obtain the security code number before disconnecting the battery cables.

Removal

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Drain the cooling system.
  3. Remove the accessory drive belts, the valve cover, and the upper timing belt cover.
  4. Set the timing at Top Dead Center (TDC)/compression for No. 1 piston.
  5. Remove the crankshaft pulley and lower timing belt cover.
  6. Remove the timing belt. Replace the timing belt if it is contaminated with oil or coolant or shows any signs of wear and damage.
  7. If equipped with a Crankshaft Speed Fluctuation (CKF) sensor at the crankshaft sprocket, unbolt the sensor bracket and move the sensor out of the way. Cover the sensor with a shop towel to keep coolant off of it.
  8. Unbolt the water pump and remove it from the engine block. On 1.6L engines, the top right water pump mounting bolt also secures the alternator adjusting bracket. Leave the bracket attached to the alternator.

Installation

  1. Clean the water pump and O-ring mating surfaces before installation.
  2. Install the water pump with a new O-ring. Coat only the bolt threads with liquid gasket and tighten them to 9 ft. lbs. (12 Nm). On 1.6L engines, tighten the bracket bolt to 33 ft. lbs. (44 Nm).
  3. Install the timing belt. Be sure it is fitted and adjusted properly.
  4. If equipped, install the CKF sensor and tighten the bracket bolts to 9 ft. lbs. (12 Nm).
  5. Install the lower belt cover and crankshaft pulley.
  6. Install the upper timing belt cover, the valve cover, and the accessory drive belts.
  7. Be sure the cooling system drain plug is closed. Refill and bleed the cooling system.
  8. Connect the negative battery cable and enter the radio security code.
  9. Start the engine, allow it to reach normal operating temperature, and check for coolant leaks.

This is a simplified version of how to replace a water pump. The following video is quite complete:

YouTube

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How to Replace the Thermostat on All 1996 - 2000 Honda Civic LX / Del Sol 1.6L 4 Cyl Engines

How to replace the thermostat on all 1996 - 2000 Honda Civic LX / del Sol 1.6L 4 cyl engines.

Removal & Installation

Fig 1: Removing the hose from the thermostat housing

Fig 2: Removal of the water outlet housing

Fig 3: Pull the thermostat out of the water outlet housing

Fig 4: Remove the gasket from the thermostat

Fig 5: Location of the thermostat air bleed

CAUTION: Never open, service or drain the radiator or cooling system when hot; serious burns can occur from the steam and hot coolant. Also, when draining engine coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted to ethylene glycol antifreeze and could drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantities. Always drain coolant into a sealable container. Coolant should be reused unless it is contaminated or is several years old.

To remove:

  1. Note the radio security code and station presets.
  2. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  3. Drain the engine coolant into a sealable container.
  4. Remove the fasteners from the thermostat housing and remove the thermostat.

To install:

  1. Install the thermostat using a new seal. If the thermostat has a small bleed hole, make sure the bleed hole is on the top.
  2. Apply an anti-seize compound to the threads of the fasteners.
  3. Reassemble in the reverse order of disassembly.
  4. Set the heater to the full hot position.
  5. Locate the coolant bleed valve near the thermostat housing and open the valve 1 / 2 a turn.
  6. Top off the cooling system and overflow reservoir with a 50/50 mixture of a recommended antifreeze and water solution. and bleed the system to remove any air pockets as necessary. Simultaneously squeeze the upper and lower radiator hoses to help push any captured air pockets out of the system.
  7. Inspect all coolant hoses and fittings to make sure they are properly installed and if previously opened, close the bleed valve.
  8. Connect the negative battery cable.
  9. Install the radiator cap loosely and start the engine. Allow the engine to run until the cooling fan has cycled two times, then turn the engine off and top off the cooling system as necessary.
  10. Install the radiator cap and inspect for leaks.
  11. Enter the radio security code.

WARNING: The manufacturer does not recommend using a coolant concentration of greater than 60% antifreeze.

When mixing a 50/50 solution of antifreeze and water, using distilled water may help to keep the cooling system from building up mineral deposits and internal blockage.

How to Remove & Install the Alternator on a 1996 - 2000 Honda Accord DX / Prelude 2.2L 4 Cyl Engines

This guide will take you step-by-step through the process of removing and installing an alternator on all 1996 - 2000 Honda Accord DX and Honda Prelude vehicles with 2.2L 4 cyl engines.

Fig. 1 Location of the alternator on most Honda 4 cylinder engines

Fig. 2 Remove the dust boot for access to wiring connection at the alternator

Fig. 3 Unfasten the nut, then remove the closed-ended connector

Fig. 4 Unplug the wiring harness from the rear of the alternator

Fig. 5 Check the O-ring on the end of the wiring harness for cracks and or tears in the rubber. Replace as necessary

Fig. 6 After removing the retaining bolts, use a small prytool to remove the alternator from the pivot bracket if it is lodged

Fig. 7 Using both hands, firmly grasp the alternator and remove it from the vehicle

Fig. 8 Front view of a common Honda alternator

Fig. 9 Rear view of a common Honda alternator

Fig. 10 Always inspect the integrity of the alternator bolt before re-installing it

REMOVAL (ACCORD)

  1. Note the radio security code and the radio presets.
  2. Disconnect the negative battery cable, then the positive.
  3. Remove the power steering pump, for details, please refer to Section 8.
  4. Detach the wiring from the alternator.
  5. Loosen the through bolt, then loosen the adjustment locknut and the adjusting bolt.
  6. Remove the alternator belt.
  7. Remove all mounting and adjusting bolts and then remove the alternator unit from the vehicle.

INSTALLATION (ACCORD)

  1. Installation is the reverse of removal. Tighten the adjusting locknut to 16 ft. lbs. (22 Nm) and the through bolt to 33 ft. lbs. (45 Nm).
  2. Adjust the alternator belt tension, as outlined in Section 1.
  3. Enter the anti-theft code for the radio.

REMOVAL (PRELUDE)

Fig. 11 Alternator mounting bolt locations (Prelude)

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable, then the positive.
  2. Remove the power steering pump. For more details, please refer to Section 8.
  3. Detach the cruise control actuator, but do not remove the cable.
  4. Loosen the through bolt, then loosen adjusting bolt.
  5. Remove the alternator belt.
  6. Remove the adjusting bolt.
  7. Remove the through bolt, then remove the alternator from the vehicle.

INSTALLATION (PRELUDE)

  1. Installation is the reverse of removal. Tighten the alternator locknut to 16 ft. lbs. (22 Nm) and the mounting bolt to 33 ft. lbs. (45 Nm).
  2. Adjust the alternator belt tension, as outlined in Section 1.

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How to Replace the Engine on All 1997 - 2000 Toyota Camry / Avalon 2.2L 4 Cyl Models

How to Replace the Engine on All 1997 - 2000 Toyota Camry / Avalon 2.2L 4 Cyl Models.

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION

2.2L (5S-FE) Engine

Camry & Camry Solara

  • Disconnect the negative battery cable. On vehicles equipped with an air bag, wait at least 90 seconds before proceeding.
  • On the Camry Solara remove the strut tower brace.
  • Remove the battery and the battery tray.
  • Remove the hood.
  • Remove the engine undercover, then drain the engine coolant and oil.
  • Disconnect the accelerator cable from the throttle body.
  • On models with automatic transmission, disconnect the throttle cable.
  • Remove the air cleaner assembly.
  • Detach the intake air resonator chamber.
  • Disconnect the air intake hose.
  • On models with cruise control, remove the actuator cover, unplug the connector, remove the 3 bolts, then disconnect the actuator with the bracket.
  • Disconnect the ground strap at the battery carrier.
  • Remove the radiator, then disconnect the coolant reservoir hose.
  • Remove the washer tank and disconnect the electrical lead and hose.
  • Tag and disconnect the following:
  • The 5 connectors to the engine relay box
  • The igniter connector
  • The noise filter connector
  • The connector at the left-hand fender apron
  • The 2 ground straps from the left-hand and right-hand fender aprons
  • The data link connector (DLC1)
  • Disconnect the MAP sensor connector
  • Inside the vehicle, remove the dash panel undercover, the glove compartment door, the glove compartment, disconnect the cowl harness connectors and the 2 Engine Control Module (ECM) connectors.
  • Disconnect the heater hoses, the fuel return hose, and the fuel inlet hose.
  • On models with manual transmission, remove the starter and the clutch release cylinder. Don't disconnect the hydraulic line, simply hang the cylinder out of the way.
  • Disconnect the transaxle control cables at the transaxle.
  • Tag and disconnect all remaining vacuum hoses and connectors.
  • Remove the 2 nuts and pull out the engine wire from the cowl panel.
  • Without disconnecting the refrigerant lines, remove the air conditioning compressor and carefully position it out of the way.
  • Loosen the 2 bolts and disconnect the front exhaust pipe bracket. Use a deep 14mm socket and remove the 3 nuts attaching the front pipe to the manifold. Disconnect the front pipe from the exhaust manifold.
  • Remove the halfshafts.
  • Without disconnecting the hydraulic lines, remove the power steering pump and carefully position it aside.
  • Remove the 3 bolts (manual transmission) or 4 bolts (automatic transmission), then disconnect the left engine mounting insulator. Remove the access plugs, remove the 3 nuts, then remove the right rear engine mounting insulator. Remove the 3 bolts and disconnect the front right engine mounting insulator.
  • Attach an engine lifting device to the lift hooks. Remove the 3 bolts and disconnect the control rod.
  • Slowly and carefully, lift the engine/transaxle assembly out of the engine compartment.
  • If equipped with automatic transmission, remove the starter.
  • Separate the engine assembly from the transaxle.

To install:

  • Connect the engine assembly to the transaxle.

NOTE

On vehicles equipped with automatic transmission, install the starter.

  • Carefully lower the engine and transaxle assembly into the engine compartment.
  • With the engine level and all the mounts aligned with their brackets, install the engine control rod. Tighten the 3 bolts, in the sequence to 47 ft. lbs. (64 Nm).
  • Connect the front right engine mount and tighten the bolts to 59 ft. lbs. (80 Nm). Connect the rear mount and tighten the nuts to 48 ft. lbs. (66 Nm). Don't forget the access plugs.
  • Connect the left mount and tighten the bolts (3 or 4) to 47 ft. lbs. (64 Nm).
  • Install the power steering pump and tighten the bolts to 31 ft. lbs. (43 Nm). Install the drive belt and connect the 2 air hoses to the air pipe.
  • Install the halfshafts.
  • Connect the front pipe to the manifold and tighten the new nuts to 46 ft. lbs. (62 Nm).
  • Install the air conditioning compressor and tighten the bolts to 20 ft. lbs. (27 Nm).
  • Feed the engine harness through the cowl and reattach the clamp to the cowl. Make the following connections:
  • The 2 ECM connectors
  • The 2 cowl wire connectors
  • Install the glove compartment and door
  • Install the lower instrument panel and the undercover
  • Connect the vacuum hoses and the transaxle control cables.
  • On manual transmission vehicles, install the release cylinder and the starter.
  • Connect the fuel inlet hose and tighten it to 22 ft. lbs. (29 Nm). Connect the return hose and the 2 heater hoses.
  • Connect the following:
  • Attach the 5 connectors to the relay box
  • The connectors from the left-hand fender apron
  • Install the engine relay box
  • The igniter connector
  • On California models, the ignition coil connector
  • The noise filter connector
  • The 2 ground straps from the left-hand and right-hand fender apron
  • The data link connector (DLC1)
  • The Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor connector.
  • Install the washer tank and connect the electrical lead and hose.
  • Install the coolant reservoir hose and the radiator.
  • If equipped with cruise control, install the actuator and bracket with the 3 bolts. Connect the actuator connector and install the cover.
  • Connect the ground strap to the battery carrier.
  • Install the air cleaner assembly.
  • On California models, connect the air hose to the air cleaner assembly and connect the air intake temperature sensor connector.
  • On vehicles equipped with automatic transmission, connect and adjust the throttle cable.
  • Connect and adjust the accelerator cable.
  • Install the battery tray and battery.
  • On Camry Solara models install the strut tower brace.
  • Install the hood.
  • Fill the engine with oil and coolant.
  • Connect the negative battery cable, start the engine, bleed the cooling system, and check for any leaks.
  • Install the engine undercover.
  • Road test the vehicle for any abnormal noise and verify proper operation.

3.0L (1MZ-FE) Engine

Camry & Camry Solara

  • Release the fuel system pressure.
  • Turn the ignition switch OFF .
  • Disconnect the battery cables, negative cable first.

NOTE

On vehicles equipped with an air bag, wait at least 90 seconds before proceeding.

  • Matchmark the hood hinges and remove the hood.
  • Remove the battery and battery tray.
  • Drain the engine oil and cooling system.
  • Disconnect the accelerator and throttle cables.
  • Remove the cruise control actuator, if equipped.
  • Remove the air cleaner assembly, mass air flow meter and air cleaner hose.
  • Remove the radiator.
  • Remove the 2 bolts and disconnect the engine relay box.
  • Disconnect the 5 connectors to the engine relay box.
  • Disconnect the following connectors:
  • 2 igniter connectors
  • Noise filter connector
  • Connector from the left-hand fender apron
  • Disconnect the 2 ground straps and any other electrical connections keeping them from being removed.
  • Disconnect all vacuum hoses from the engine.
  • Disconnect the fuel inlet and return hoses.
  • Disconnect the heater hoses.
  • Disconnect the transaxle control cable from the transaxle.
  • Remove the instrument panel undercover, the lower instrument panel and glove box assembly.
  • Disconnect the 3 Engine Control Module (ECM) connectors, the 5 cowl wire connectors, and the cooling fan ECM connector. Push the engine wire through the cowl panel.
  • Remove the front exhaust pipe.
  • Remove the halfshafts from the vehicle.
  • Disconnect the power steering pressure tube.
  • Remove the power steering pump.
  • Remove the air conditioning compressor without disconnecting the hoses.
  • Remove the left-hand engine mounting insulator by removing the 4 bolts.
  • Remove the right-hand engine mounting insulator by removing the 2 hole plugs, then removing the 4 nuts.
  • Remove the 4 bolts to the engine mounting shock absorber, then remove the absorber.
  • Remove the front right engine mounting insulator by removing the 3 bolts.
  • Attach a hoist chain to the engine hangers.
  • Disconnect the coolant reservoir hose and remove the reservoir tank.
  • Remove right-side engine mounting stay bracket. Remove the engine control rod and bracket assembly.

NOTE

Make certain all wires, connectors and hoses are cleared from the engine.

  • Using an engine hoist, carefully lift the engine/transaxle assembly from the vehicle.

To install:

  • Carefully lower the engine position. Keep the engine level while aligning the engine mounts.
  • Install the engine control rod and bracket. Tighten to 47 ft. lbs. (64 Nm).
  • Install the right engine mount stay bracket. Tighten to 23 ft. lbs. (31 Nm).
  • Connect the engine ground straps. Install the coolant reservoir tank.
  • Install the front engine insulator. Tighten to 48 ft. lbs. (66 Nm).
  • Install the engine mounting shock absorber. Tighten to 35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm).
  • Install the left and right engine mounts. Tighten to 48 ft. lbs. (66 Nm).
  • Install the power steering pump and air conditioning compressor.
  • Connect the power steering pressure tube.
  • Install the halfshafts and front exhaust pipe.
  • Push the engine wires through the cowl panel and connect all wires and connectors.
  • Connect the transaxle control cable to the transaxle.
  • Connect the fuel hoses and heater hoses.
  • Connect all vacuum hoses, wiring and connectors.
  • Install the radiator.
  • Install the cruise control actuator, if equipped. Connect the throttle cable and accelerator cable.
  • Install the Mass Air Flow meter, the air cleaner assembly, and air cleaner hose.
  • Fill the cooling system with the proper coolant/water mixture. Fill the engine with engine oil.
  • Install the battery tray and battery. Connect the battery cables; negative cable last.
  • Align the marks and install the hood.
  • Start the engine and check for leaks.
  • Perform a road test.
  • Recheck all fluid levels.

Avalon

  • Release the fuel system pressure.
  • Turn the ignition switch OFF .
  • Disconnect the battery cables, negative cable first.

NOTE

On vehicles equipped with an air bag, wait at least 90 seconds before proceeding.

  • Matchmark the hood hinges and remove the hood.
  • Remove the battery and battery tray.
  • Drain the engine oil and cooling system.
  • Disconnect the accelerator and throttle cables.
  • Remove the cruise control actuator, if equipped.
  • Remove the air cleaner assembly, mass air flow meter and air cleaner hose.
  • Remove the radiator.
  • Remove the bolts and disconnect the engine relay box.
  • Disconnect the connectors to the engine relay box.
  • Disconnect the following connectors:
  • Igniter connectors
  • Noise filter connector
  • Connector from the left-hand fender apron
  • Disconnect the ground straps and any other electrical connections keeping them from being removed.
  • Disconnect all vacuum hoses from the engine.
  • Disconnect the fuel inlet and return hoses.
  • Disconnect the heater hoses.
  • Disconnect the transaxle control cable from the transaxle.
  • Remove the instrument panel undercover, the lower instrument panel and glove box assembly.
  • Disconnect the Engine Control Module (ECM) connectors, the cowl wire connectors, and the cooling fan ECM connector. Push the engine wire through the cowl panel.
  • Remove the front exhaust pipe.
  • Remove the halfshafts from the vehicle.
  • Disconnect the power steering pressure tube.
  • Remove the power steering pump.
  • Remove the air conditioning compressor without disconnecting the hoses.
  • Remove the left-hand engine mounting insulator by removing the bolts.
  • Remove the right-hand engine mounting insulator by removing the hole plugs, then removing the nuts.
  • Remove the 4 bolts to the engine mounting shock absorber, then remove the absorber.
  • Remove the front right engine mounting insulator by removing the bolts.
  • Attach a hoist chain to the engine hangers.
  • Disconnect the coolant reservoir hose and remove the reservoir tank.
  • Remove right-side engine mounting stay bracket. Remove the engine control rod and bracket assembly.

NOTE

Make certain all wires, connectors and hoses are cleared from the engine.

  • Using an engine hoist, carefully lift the engine/transaxle assembly from the vehicle.

To install:

  • Carefully lower the engine position. Keep the engine level while aligning the engine mounts.
  • Install the engine control rod and bracket. Tighten to 47 ft. lbs. (64 Nm).
  • Install the right engine mount stay bracket. Tighten to 23 ft. lbs. (31 Nm).
  • Connect the engine ground straps. Install the coolant reservoir tank.
  • Install the front engine insulator. If the bolts are silver colored, tighten to 32 ft. lbs. (44 Nm). If the bolts are green in color, tighten them to 49 ft. lbs. (66 Nm).
  • Install the engine mounting shock absorber. Tighten to 35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm).
  • Install the left and right engine mounts. Tighten to 47 ft. lbs. (64 Nm).
  • Install the power steering pump and air conditioning compressor.
  • Connect the power steering pressure tube.
  • Install the halfshafts and front exhaust pipe.
  • Push the engine wires through the cowl panel and connect all wires and connectors.
  • Connect the transaxle control cable to the transaxle.
  • Connect the fuel hoses and heater hoses.
  • Connect all vacuum hoses, wiring and connectors.
  • Install the radiator.
  • Install the cruise control actuator, if equipped. Connect the throttle cable and accelerator cable.
  • Install the Mass Air Flow meter, the air cleaner assembly, and air cleaner hose.
  • Fill the cooling system with the proper coolant/water mixture. Fill the engine with engine oil.
  • Install the battery tray and battery. Connect the battery cables; negative cable last.
  • Align the marks and install the hood.
  • Start the engine and check for leaks.
  • Perform a road test.
  • Recheck all fluid levels.

How to Replace the Cylinder Head on All 1996 - 2000 Honda Civic LX / Del Sol 1.6L 4 Cyl Engines

Careful thought and a clean work environment should be a priority when removing a cylinder head. Have plenty of cardboard boxes and a good marker handy to label and organize the parts as they are removed. Read the procedures before starting to get a thorough understanding of the tools and equipment needed. Many of the components of the cylinder head are precision machined pieces that need to be thoroughly cleaned and inspected before reinstalling.

Before You Begin...

Warning: To avoid damaging the cylinder head, allow the coolant temperature to drop below 100°F (38°C) before removing the head bolts.

Careful thought and a clean work environment should be a priority when removing a cylinder head. Have plenty of cardboard boxes and a good marker handy to label and organize the parts as they are removed.

Be sure to have an ample supply of sealable clear plastic bags that can be labeled for the removed fasteners. Make sure to investigate whether or not certain fasteners can be reused or must be replaced.

Have sealable containers available for the used coolant and engine oil which must be drained during the procedure. Have a pencil and note pad handy to make drawings and make notes of cable routing, wire and bracket locations.

Follow the installation procedures carefully to know whether certain fasteners should be lubricated or not when being installed.

Read the procedures before starting to get a thorough understanding of the tools and equipment needed. Many of the components of the cylinder head are precision machined pieces that need to be thoroughly cleaned and inspected before reinstalling.

When machined components are removed NEVER:

  • Allow two machined pieces to rest or contact one another
  • Lay the component directly on the ground or garage floor
  • Mix up the location from which they were removed

Use wood or cardboard to protect a machined component, especially items such as a cylinder head.

The radio may contain a coded theft protection circuit. Always obtain the code number before disconnecting the battery.

1996 - 1997 Civic & Civic del Sol

1.6L (D16Y5, D16Y7 & D16Y8) Engines

Removal

  1. Be sure the cylinder head is cool to the touch before beginning the removal procedure. The coolant temperature must be below 100° F (38° C).
  2. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  3. Drain the cooling system.
  4. Label and disconnect the ignition wires.
  5. Remove the air intake duct and the air cleaner assembly.
  6. Relieve the fuel pressure.
  7. Clean up any fuel that may have spilled on the engine or intake manifold.
  8. Disconnect the upper radiator hose from the coolant inlet.
  9. Disconnect the coolant bypass hoses and the heater hose from the intake manifold.
  10. Loosen the power steering pump mounting bolts to release the belt tension. Remove the power steering pump belt.
  11. Remove the power steering pump from its mounting bracket and lift the power steering reservoir from its mount. Move the pump and reservoir out of the work area and secure them. Don't disconnect the hydraulic lines.
  12. Place a block of wood on the pad of a floor jack. Place the floor jack under the engine for support.
  13. If equipped with A/C, unbolt the left-front engine mount bracket.
  14. Loosen the A/C compressor idler pulley bolt. Then, loosen the adjusting bolt to release the belt tension. Slip the A/C compressor belt around the engine mount to remove it.
  15. Loosen the alternator mounts, then remove the alternator belt.
  16. Be sure the engine is supported with the padded floor jack. Loosen the nuts from left side engine mount. Remove the engine mount bracket.
  17. Remove the valve cover and the upper timing belt cover.
  18. Remove the crankshaft pulley and the lower timing belt cover. Separate the dipstick tube from its catches on the timing cover. Remove the timing belt.
  19. With the timing belt removed, inspect the water pump and replace it if necessary.
  20. Remove the distributor from the cylinder head as an assembly.
  21. Unbolt and remove the camshaft sprocket.
  22. Disconnect the fuel lines from the intake manifold fuel rail. Immediately plug the lines to prevent fuel leakage and contamination.
  23. Disconnect the throttle cable from the linkage by first loosening its lock-nut, then slipping it out of its holder.
  24. Label and disconnect the following engine harness connectors from the cylinder head and the intake manifold: A. Fuel injector wiring harness connectors B. VTEC solenoid valve and pressure switch connectors (D16Y5, D16Y8 engines only) C. Idle Air Control (IAC) valve connector D. Throttle Position (TP) sensor connector E. EGR valve lift sensor connectors (D16Y5 engine only) F. Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor, switch, and gauge sender connectors G. Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor connector H. Primary and secondary (D16Y5, D16Y7 engines only) Heated Oxygen sensor (HO 2 S) connectors
  25. Label and disconnect the vacuum hoses and PCV hose from the intake manifold and throttle body.
  26. Disconnect the charcoal canister (EVAP) and breather hoses from the intake manifold.
  27. Remove the intake manifold together with the throttle body and plenum.
  28. Remove the exhaust manifold.
  29. Remove the power steering pump bracket.
  30. Loosen the cylinder head bolts in a three-step crisscross pattern in the reverse order of the tightening sequence. Start with the outermost bolts and work toward the middle of the cylinder head. Loosen the bolts in the reverse order of installation.
  31. Remove the cylinder head. If the head sticks to the engine block, tap it with a plastic or wooden mallet.
  32. Inspect the cylinder head for warpage and cracking. Repair, machine, or replace as necessary. The warpage limit is 0.002 in. (0.05mm). Standard cylinder head height is 3.659-3.663 in. (92.95-93.05mm).
  33. Remove the old cylinder head gasket and thoroughly clean the mating surfaces.
  34. Cover the engine block with a sheet of plastic to keep out dust and foreign objects.

Installation

Use new O-ring, seals, and gaskets when installing the cylinder head and its components.

  1. Be sure the cylinder head and the engine block surfaces are clean, level, and straight.
  2. Be sure the cylinder head dowel pins and control orifice are aligned. Clean the oil control orifice and reinstall it with a new O-ring.
  3. Install a new head gasket onto the engine block.
  4. If the camshaft was removed, reinstall it with the key-way facing up so that the engine will remain at TDC/compression for the No. 1 cylinder. Lubricate and install a new camshaft seal.
  5. Use new cylinder head bolts and washers. Used or previously-tightened bolts may be stretched, and therefore they have reduced clamping and sealing power under compression. Apply clean engine oil to the threads of each head bolt.
  6. Fit the cylinder head into place. Hand-tighten all the cylinder head bolts.
  7. Tighten the cylinder head bolts to their final torque specification in four steps. Use a crisscross sequence starting with the bolts at the middle of the head and working toward the outer bolts as follows: Step 1: Tighten each bolt to 14 ft. lbs. (20 Nm). Step 2: Tighten each bolt to 36 ft. lbs. (49 Nm). Step 3: Tighten each bolt to 49 ft. lbs. (67 Nm). Step 4: Retighten only the two center bolts to 49 ft. lbs. (67 Nm).
  8. Apply oil to the camshaft sprocket bolt. Install the sprocket with the UP mark and the key-way pointing straight up. Tighten the sprocket bolt to 27 ft. lbs. (37 Nm).
  9. Install the intake manifold with a new gasket, and tighten the nuts in a crisscross pattern in two or three steps to 17 ft. lbs. (24 Nm) starting with the inner nuts.
  10. Install the bolts that secure the intake manifold to its bracket and tighten them to 17 ft. lbs. (24 Nm).
  11. Install the power steering pump bracket and tighten its bolts to 33 ft. lbs. (44 Nm).
  12. Install the exhaust manifold with a new gasket. Apply anti-seize paste to the studs, and tighten the nuts to 23 ft. lbs. (31 Nm) in a crisscross sequence.
  13. Connect the exhaust manifold to the front exhaust pipe. Tighten the self-locking nuts to 25 ft. lbs. (33 Nm). On vehicles with the D16Y8 engine, tighten the nuts to 40 ft. lbs. (55 Nm).
  14. Verify that the engine is at TDC/compression for the No. 1 cylinder.
  15. Install the timing belt. After the timing belt has been properly tensioned, tighten the adjusting bolt to 33 ft. lbs. (44 Nm).
  16. Install the lower timing belt cover. Install the crankshaft pulley and tighten its bolt to 134 ft. lbs. (181 Nm). Fit the dipstick tube back into its catches.
  17. Adjust the valves. If equipped with a VTEC engine, also check the rocker arms for free and smooth motion.
  18. If equipped with a VTEC engine, remove the VTEC solenoid valve and its filter. Install a new filter, then reinstall the VTEC solenoid valve and tighten its bolt to 9 ft. lbs. (12 Nm).
  19. Install the distributor. The lugs on the distributor drive fit into the groove on the end of the camshaft. Don't fully tighten the distributor mounting bolts yet.
  20. Be sure all the spark plug tube sealing gaskets are fully seated.
  21. Install a new gasket onto to the valve cover. Apply liquid gasket to the corner recesses of the gasket. Don't let the sealant cure before installing the valve cover onto the cylinder head.
  22. Install the valve cover. Gently wiggle the valve cover to be sure it is fully seated. Tighten the valve cover bolts in a crisscross pattern to 7 ft. lbs. (10 Nm).
  23. Install new spark plugs.
  24. Reconnect the ignition wires.
  25. Reconnect the upper radiator hose, heater hoses, and intake manifold coolant bypass hoses.
  26. Reconnect the intake manifold vacuum lines, PCV, EVAP canister, and breather hoses.
  27. Connect the fuel lines to the fuel rail. Use new sealing washers on the banjo fitting. Carefully tighten the banjo fitting to 21 ft. lbs. (28 Nm) for the D16Y5 engine, or to 16 ft. lbs. (22 Nm) for all other engines. Tighten the service bolt to 9-11 ft. lbs. (12-15 Nm).
  28. Reconnect the throttle cable. Adjust its tension so the cable has a deflection of 10-12mm (0.39-0.47 in.).
  29. Installation of the remaining components is the reverse of removal.

1.6L (B16A2) Engine

Removal

  1. Before beginning the cylinder head removal procedure, be sure the engine temperature is below 100° F (38° C). To prevent warping, the cylinder head should be removed when the engine is cold.
  2. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  3. Label and disconnect the ignition wires.
  4. Drain the engine coolant. Remove the radiator cap to speed draining.
  5. Remove the strut brace.
  6. Remove the intake air duct and disconnect the breather hose.
  7. Relieve the fuel pressure as follows: A. Loosen the fuel filler cap. B. Hold the fuel filter banjo bolt with a back-up wrench. Hold the fuel filter service bolt with a box end wrench. C. Place a shop rag over the fuel filter to absorb fuel spray. D. Slowly loosen the fuel filter service bolt one complete turn.
  8. Clean up any fuel that may have spilled on the engine or intake manifold.
  9. Disconnect the upper radiator hose from the coolant inlet.
  10. Disconnect the coolant bypass hoses and the heater hose from the intake manifold.
  11. Loosen the power steering pump mounting bolts to release the belt tension. Remove the power steering pump belt.
  12. Remove the power steering pump from its mounting bracket and lift the power steering reservoir from its mount. Move the pump and reservoir out of the work area and secure them. Don't disconnect the hydraulic lines.
  13. Place a block of wood on the pad of a floor jack. Place the floor jack under the engine for support.
  14. If equipped with A/C: unbolt the left-front engine mount bracket.
  15. Loosen the A/C compressor idler pulley bolt. Then, loosen the adjusting bolt to release the belt tension. Slip the A/C compressor belt around the engine mount to remove it.
  16. Loosen the alternator mounts, then remove the alternator belt.
  17. Be sure the engine is supported with the padded floor jack. Loosen the left side engine mount nuts. Remove the engine mount bracket.
  18. Remove the valve cover and the upper timing belt cover.
  19. Remove the crankshaft pulley and the lower timing belt cover. Remove the timing belt.
  20. With the timing belt removed, inspect the water pump and replace it if necessary.
  21. Remove the distributor from the cylinder head as an assembly.
  22. Disconnect the fuel lines from the intake manifold fuel rail. Immediately plug the lines to prevent fuel leakage and contamination.
  23. Disconnect the throttle cable from the linkage by first loosening its lock-nut, then slipping it out of its holder.
  24. Label and disconnect the following engine harness connectors from the cylinder head and the intake manifold: A. Fuel injector wiring harness connectors B. VTEC solenoid valve and pressure switch connectors C. Idle Air Control (IAC) valve connector D. Throttle Position (TP) sensor connector E. Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor, switch, and gauge sender connectors F. Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor connector G. Primary Heated Oxygen sensor (HO 2 S) connector
  25. Label and disconnect the vacuum hoses and PCV hose from the intake manifold and throttle body.
  26. Disconnect the charcoal canister (EVAP) and breather hoses from the intake manifold.
  27. Loosen the intake manifold nuts in a crisscross sequence. Then, remove the intake manifold together with the throttle body and plenum.
  28. Remove the exhaust manifold heat shield. Then, loosen the exhaust manifold nuts in a crisscross sequence. Remove the exhaust manifold. Be careful not to damage the oxygen sensors when removing the manifold. Cover the front exhaust pipe flange with a shop towel to keep dirt out.
  29. Remove the power steering pump bracket.
  30. Remove the camshaft pulleys and back cover.
  31. Loosen the camshaft holder plate bolts in a crisscross sequence working toward the middle of the cylinder head.
  32. Loosen the valve adjusting screws.
  33. Lift the camshaft holder plates and holders from the cylinder head. The holder bolts will keep the components together. Note the positions of each camshaft holder for reassembly.
  34. Lift the camshafts from the cylinder head. Mark the exhaust and intake camshafts so that they will not be confused.
  35. Loosen the cylinder head bolts in a three-step crisscross pattern. Start with the outermost bolts and work toward the middle of the cylinder head.
  36. Remove the cylinder head. If the head sticks to the engine block, tap it with a plastic-faced or wooden mallet.
  37. Inspect the cylinder head for warpage and cracking. Repair, machine, or replace as necessary. The warpage limit is 0.002 in. (0.05mm). Standard cylinder head height is 5.589-5.593 in. (141.95-142.05mm).

Installation

Use new O-ring, seals, and gaskets when installing the cylinder head and its components.

  1. Be sure the cylinder head and the engine block surfaces are clean, level, and straight.
  2. Be sure the cylinder head dowel pins and oil control orifice are aligned. Clean the oil control orifice and reinstall it with a new O-ring.
  3. Install a new head gasket onto the engine block.
  4. Use new cylinder head bolts and washers. Used or previously-tightened bolts may be stretched; and therefore, they have reduced clamping and sealing power under compression. Apply clean engine oil to the threads of each head bolt.
  5. Fit the cylinder head into place. Hand-tighten all the cylinder head bolts.
  6. Tighten the cylinder head bolts to their final torque specification in two steps. Use a crisscross sequence starting with the bolts at the middle of the head and working toward the outer bolts. Step 1: Tighten each bolt to 22 ft. lbs. (30 Nm). Step 2: Tighten each bolt to 61 ft. lbs. (85 Nm).
  7. Install the dowel pin in the No. 3 cylinder head camshaft holder with a new O-ring.
  8. Thoroughly clean the intake and exhaust camshaft oil control orifices. Reinstall them with new O-rings.
  9. Install the camshafts.
  10. Install the intake manifold with a new gasket, and tighten the nuts in a crisscross pattern in two or three steps to 17 ft. lbs. (24 Nm) starting with the inner nuts.
  11. Install the bolts that secure the intake manifold to its bracket and tighten them to 17 ft. lbs. (24 Nm).
  12. Install the power steering pump bracket and tighten its bolts to 33 ft. lbs. (44 Nm).
  13. Install the exhaust manifold with a new gasket. Apply anti-seize paste to the studs, and tighten the nuts to 23 ft. lbs. (31 Nm) in a crisscross sequence. Tighten the exhaust manifold bracket bolts to 17 ft. lbs. (24 Nm).
  14. Connect the exhaust manifold to the front exhaust pipe. Tighten the self-locking nuts to 40 ft. lbs. (55 Nm).
  15. Verify that the engine is at TDC/compression for the No. 1 cylinder.
  16. Install the timing belt. After the timing belt has been properly tensioned, tighten the adjusting bolt to 40 ft. lbs. (55 Nm).
  17. Install the lower timing belt cover. Install the crankshaft pulley and tighten its bolt to 130 ft. lbs. (180 Nm).
  18. Adjust the valves.
  19. Inspect the VTEC rocker arms for free and smooth motion.
  20. Remove the VTEC solenoid valve and its filter. Install a new filter, then reinstall the VTEC solenoid valve and tighten its bolts to 9 ft. lbs. (12 Nm).
  21. Install the distributor. The lugs on the distributor drive fit into the groove on the end of the intake camshaft. Don't fully-tighten the distributor mounting bolts yet.
  22. Be sure all the spark plug tube sealing gaskets are fully seated.
  23. Install a new gasket onto to the valve cover. Apply liquid gasket to the corners of the gasket that meet the camshaft holders. Don't let the sealant cure before installing the valve cover onto the cylinder head.
  24. Install the valve cover. Gently wiggle the valve cover to be sure it is fully seated. Tighten the valve cover bolts in a crisscross pattern to 7 ft. lbs. (10 Nm).
  25. Install new spark plugs.
  26. Reconnect the ignition wires.
  27. Reconnect the upper radiator hose, heater hoses, and intake manifold coolant bypass hoses.
  28. Reconnect the intake manifold vacuum lines, PCV, EVAP canister, and breather hoses.
  29. Connect the fuel lines to the fuel rail. Use new sealing washers on the banjo fitting. Carefully tighten the banjo fitting to 25 ft. lbs. (33 Nm). Tighten the service bolt to 11 ft. lbs. (15 Nm).
  30. Reconnect the throttle cable. Adjust its tension so the cable has a deflection of 0.39-0.47 in. (10-12mm)
  31. Installation of the remaining components is the reverse of removal.
  32. After the installation procedure is complete, check that all tubes, hoses, and connectors are installed correctly.

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Why Your Dodge Stratus Might Be Overheating

The 2004 Dodge Stratus had issues with the water pumps

First of all, it's very important to remember not to remove the radiator cap or any hose while the engine is still hot and under pressure; serious burns from coolant can occur.

There are more reasons your engine could be overheating than it would be realistic to discuss in this format. Everything from coolant fan failure to a bad head gasket to an incorrect radiator cap could be the source.

When talking about overheating problems on the Stratus, however, the first thing that comes to mind is the water pump. A water pump is just what it sounds like, a mechanical device, driven by a belt that pumps coolant (antifreeze) to the engine, heater core and cooling systems of your vehicle. While the water pump circulates the coolant continuously through your engine, the thermostat is what will tell it at what rate to push the coolant. The water pump consists of a main body, a flange, a main shaft, bearings, seals, an impeller and a gasket that will seal it to the engine.

When a water pump goes bad or is going bad, a couple of things can happen. First you could hear a squeaking noise or a rattle under the hood and see an increase in temperature. Second, it could leak coolant. Depending on how bad the leak is, you might see drips under the engine or you may see a large puddle. Finally, the pump can fail internally. There is a small impeller that can fail inside the pump, thereby not allowing it to pump coolant, but also not showing any of the visible symptoms, like a coolant leak or a noise.

The Dodge Stratus was available with both a four-cylinder and a six-cylinder engine. The water pump on the four cylinder engine is driven by the water pump that has a steel impeller; they are not as prone to breakage as the ones with plastic impellers. If the water pump is deemed bad on a four-cylinder engine, it is wise to also replace the timing belt since it will be off anyway.

The water pump on the six cylinder engine is behind the timing cover and is driven by the timing chain. It does have a plastic impeller and these water pumps are known to be troublesome. It is possible to find aftermarket water pumps with steel impellers; however, at this time Dodge is still making them with plastic impellers. If you have to replace the pump on a six cylinder engine, I would definitely look into finding one with a steel impeller.

Because of the difficulty level in diagnosing an overheating problem, it is probably a good idea to bring this one to a qualified mechanic. If the water pump is the source of the problem, it is a very complicated repair no matter which engine we are talking about.

It is also worthwhile to check and make sure that any parts you have replaced already were for the correct vehicle. It's a common mistake to put a radiator cap for a 2.4 liter engine on a 2.7 liter.

If you want to determine on your own if the water pump is circulating coolant, it is possible, although probably wiser to bring it to someone who is certified in engine repair.

-For the 2.0 or 2.4 liter engine, first make sure the engine is cold. Remove the radiator cap and remove a small amount of coolant. Start the engine and allow it to idle until the thermostat opens. You should be able to see coolant flowing when looking down into the filler neck. Replace the radiator cap and the removed coolant.

-For the 2.7 liter engine, start the engine and allow it to come up to temperature. You should be able to see coolant flow when you rev the engine in the coolant pressure container.

It is also possible to check the coolant flow on either engine by starting it and allowing it to come up to temperature and then squeezing the upper radiator hose, it should be hot if the coolant is flowing correctly.

If the radiator cap, thermostat and water pump have all been verified as functioning correctly, the next thing to look at would be a problem with the cooling fans, a cracked head or a bad head gasket.   

How to Replace an Oil Pan on All 1996 - 2000 Honda Civic LX / Del Sol 1.6L 4 Cyl Engines

In this repair guide, you will learn step-by-step how to replace an oil pan on all 1996 - 2000 Honda Civic LX / del Sol 1.6L 4 cyl engines.

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION

The radio may contain a coded theft protection circuit. Always obtain the code number before disconnecting the battery.

To remove:

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
  3. Drain the oil and remove the lower splash panel.
  4. Remove the nuts and bolts connecting the exhaust pipe to the catalytic converter. Discard the gasket and the locknuts.
  5. Remove the nuts attaching the exhaust pipe to the exhaust hanger.
  6. Remove and discard the locknuts attaching the exhaust pipe to the exhaust manifold, then remove the exhaust pipe from the vehicle. Discard the exhaust gaskets.
  7. Loosen the oil pan bolts in a crisscross pattern. To remove the oil pan, lightly tap the corners of the oil pan with a rubber or plastic faced mallet. Clean off all the old gasket material.
  8. Inspect the oil screen and pick-up tube for damaged and clogging. If the screen and tube are clogged with oil residue, they should be thoroughly cleaned or replaced.

Fig. Oil pan and oil screen-1.6L ( B16A2) engines

To install:

  1. If removed, install the oil screen and tube with a new gasket. Tighten the mounting nuts and bolts to 8 ft. lbs. (11 Nm).
  2. Apply liquid gasket to the oil pan mating surface where the oil pump and the right side cover meet the engine block.
  3. Install the oil pan gasket to the oil pan.
  4. Install the oil pan. Then, install the center and end mounting nuts and bolts. Evenly hand-tighten the oil pan nuts and bolts.
  5. Tighten the oil pan mounting nuts and bolts in a three-step clockwise pattern starting with the center bolt next to the oil drain plug. The final torque value for the nuts and bolts is 9-10 ft. lbs. (12-14 Nm). Excessive tightening can cause distortion of the oil pan gasket and oil leakage.
  6. Install the oil drain plug with a new crush washer. Tighten the plug to 33 ft. lbs. (44 Nm).
  7. Install the exhaust pipe using new gaskets and locknuts. Tighten the nuts attaching the exhaust pipe to the exhaust manifold to 40 ft. lbs. (54 Nm). Tighten the nuts attaching the exhaust pipe to the catalytic converter and the exhaust pipe hanger to 16 ft. lbs. (22 Nm).
  8. Install the lower splash panel. Then, lower the vehicle.
  9. Refill the engine with clean oil.
  10. Connect the negative battery cable and enter the radio security code.
  11. Run the engine and check for leaks.
  12. Turn off the engine and check the oil level. Top off the oil level if necessary.

Fig. Oil pan bolt tightening sequence-1.6L (B16A2) engines

Fig. Oil pan bolt tightening sequence-1.6L (D16Y5, D16Y7, D16Y8) engines

Fig. View of the oil pan

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How to Replace the Cylinder Head on All 1999 - 2005 Toyota Corolla / Celica / Echo / MR2 1.8L 4 Cyl Engines

How to Replace the Cylinder Head on All 1999 - 2005 Toyota Corolla / Celica / Echo / MR2 1.8L 4 Cyl Engines.

Removal & Installation

1NZ-FE Engines

  • Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions section.
  • Drain the cooling system.
  • Remove or disconnect the following:
  1. Negative battery cable
  2. Water filler
  3. Outer front cowl top panel
  4. Alternator
  5. Air cleaner
  6. Accelerator cable
  7. Center exhaust pipe
  8. Exhaust manifold support
  9. Exhaust manifold
  10. Ignition coil
  11. Spark plugs
  12. PCV hoses
  13. Throttle body
  14. Engine wiring harness at the head
  15. Intake manifold
  16. Camshaft position sensor
  17. ECT sensor
  18. Oil control valve
  19. PCV valve
  20. Oil filer cap
  21. Cylinder head cover
  22. Fuel injectors
  23. Timing chain cover
  24. Camshaft sprockets and valve timing control assembly
  25. Camshafts
  26. Cylinder head. Remove the bolts in a circular pattern, in several stages, starting from the ends and working toward the center

To install:

  • Install or connect the following:
  1. Cylinder head, using a new gasket. Make sure to properly orient the gasket based on the instructions printing on the gasket.
  • Torque the cylinder head bolts, in sequence, in 3 steps:

     

  1. 22 ft. lbs. (29 Nm).
  2. Plus a 90 degree turn.
  3. Plus a 90 degree turn.
  • Install or connect the following:
  1. Water bypass pipe. Torque the bolt to 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm).
  2. Camshafts
  • Camshaft bearing caps in 2 stages:

     

  1. 10 ft. lbs. (13 Nm).
  2. 17 ft. lbs. (23 Nm).
  • Install or connect the following:
  1. Sprockets and valve timing controller assembly, aligning the knock pin and hole.
  2. Torque the bolts to 47 ft. lbs. (64 Nm).
  3. Check and adjust the valves
  4. Cylinder head cover
  5. Oil filler cap
  6. PCV valve
  7. ECT sensor
  8. Camshaft position sensor
  9. Timing chain cover Intake manifold
  10. Engine wiring harness
  11. Throttle body
  12. PCV hoses
  13. Spark plugs Ignition coils
  14. Exhaust manifold
  15. Exhaust manifold support.
  16. Torque the bolts to 27 ft. lbs. (37 Nm).
  17. Front exhaust pipe.
  18. Torque the nuts to 46 ft. lbs. (62 Nm).
  19. Accelerator cable
  20. Air cleaner
  21. Alternator
  22. Water filler
  23. Negative battery cable
  • Fill the cooling system to the proper level.
  • Start the vehicle, check for leaks and repair if necessary.

1zz-FE Engines

  • Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions section.
  • Drain the cooling system.
  • Remove or disconnect the following:
  1. Battery ECU box
  2. Coolant reservoir
  3. Air cleaner assembly
  4. Accelerator cable
  5. Alternator
  6. Exhaust pipe
  7. Exhaust manifold
  8. Coils
  9. Spark plugs
  10. PCV hoses
  11. Throttle body
  12. Injectors
  13. Wiring harness
  14. Intake manifold
  15. Camshaft position sensor
  16. ECT sensor
  17. PCV valve
  18. Oil filler cap
  19. Camshaft sprockets
  20. Camshafts
  21. Hoses
  22. Cylinder head bolts in sequence. To prevent damage to the cylinder head, loosen each bolt about 1 / 4 of a turn during each pass until the bolts are loose.
  23. Cylinder head

To install:

  • Clean and degrease the surface of the cylinder head and engine block.
  • Install or connect the following:
  1. New gasket on the engine block with the Lod No. stamp facing up.
  2. Cylinder head
  3. Apply a light coat of oil to cylinder head bolt threads and tighten in sequence.
  4. Replace any bolt that appears deformed.
  5. Bolts: 36 ft. lbs. (49 Nm).
  6. Tighten each bolt in sequence an additional 90 degree turn.
  7. Camshafts
  8. Sprockets
  9. Oil filler cap
  10. PCV valve
  11. ECT sensor Intake manifold
  12. Wiring harness
  13. Exhaust manifold
  14. Exhaust pipe
  15. Alternator accelerator cable
  16. Air cleaner
  17. ECM box
  18. Battery
  • Fill the cooling system to the proper level.
  • Start the vehicle, check for leaks and repair if necessary.

2zz-Ge & 2zz-FE Engines

  • Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions section.
  • Drain the cooling system.
  • Remove or disconnect the following:
  1. Battery
  2. ECU box
  3. Coolant reservoir
  4. Air cleaner assembly
  5. Accelerator cable
  6. Alternator
  7. Exhaust pipe
  8. Exhaust manifold
  9. Coils
  10. Spark plugs
  11. PCV hoses
  12. Throttle body
  13. Injectors
  14. Wiring harness
  15. Intake manifold
  16. Camshaft position sensor
  17. ECT sensor
  18. PCV valve
  19. Oil filler cap
  20. Camshaft sprockets
  21. Camshafts
  22. Hoses
  23. Cylinder head bolts in sequence. To prevent damage to the cylinder head, loosen each bolt about 1 / 4 of a turn during each pass until the bolts are loose.
  24. Cylinder head

To install:

  • Clean and degrease the surface of the cylinder head and engine block.
  • Install or connect the following:
  1. New gasket on the engine block with the Lod No. stamp facing up.
  2. Cylinder head
  3. Apply a light coat of oil to cylinder head bolt threads and tighten in sequence.
  4. Replace any bolt that appears deformed.
  5. Bolts: 26 ft. lbs. (49 Nm).
  6. Torque each bolt in sequence an additional 180 degree turn.
  7. Camshafts
  8. Sprockets
  9. Oil filler cap
  10. PCV valve
  11. ECT sensor
  12. Intake manifold
  13. Wiring harness
  14. Exhaust manifold
  15. Exhaust pipe
  16. Alternator accelerator cable
  17. Air cleaner
  18. ECM box
  19. Battery
  • Fill the cooling system to the proper level.
  • Start the vehicle, check for leaks and repair if necessary.